C#: Except Extension Method Example

Enumerable.Except(Of TSource) Method (IEnumerable(Of TSource), IEnumerable(Of TSource), IEqualityComparer(Of TSource))

The following example shows how to implement an equality comparer that can be used in the Except method.

public class Product


public string Name { get; set; }

public int Code { get; set; }


// Custom comparer for the Product class

class ProductComparer : IEqualityComparer<Product>


// Products are equal if their names and product numbers are equal.

public bool Equals(Product x, Product y)


//Check whether the compared objects reference the same data.

if (Object.ReferenceEquals(x, y)) return true;

//Check whether any of the compared objects is null.

if (Object.ReferenceEquals(x, null) || Object.ReferenceEquals(y, null))

return false;

//Check whether the products’ properties are equal.

return x.Code == y.Code && x.Name == y.Name;


// If Equals() returns true for a pair of objects

// then GetHashCode() must return the same value for these objects.

public int GetHashCode(Product product)


//Check whether the object is null

if (Object.ReferenceEquals(product, null)) return 0;

//Get hash code for the Name field if it is not null.

int hashProductName = product.Name == null ? 0 : product.Name.GetHashCode();

//Get hash code for the Code field.

int hashProductCode = product.Code.GetHashCode();

//Calculate the hash code for the product.

return hashProductName ^ hashProductCode;



After you implement this comparer, you can use sequences of Product objects in the Except method, as shown in the following example.

Product[] fruits1 = { new Product { Name = "apple", Code = 9 },

new Product { Name = "orange", Code = 4 },

new Product { Name = "lemon", Code = 12 } };

Product[] fruits2 = { new Product { Name = "apple", Code = 9 } };

//Get all the elements from the first array

//except for the elements from the second array.

IEnumerable<Product> except =

fruits1.Except(fruits2, new ProductComparer());

foreach (var product in except)

Console.WriteLine(product.Name + " " + product.Code);


This code produces the following output:

orange 4

lemon 12





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